What Is a CRO and Why Do All the Best Professionals Work for Them?

CRO clinical research is fast becoming a popular lab-based career that appeals to many research experts. A CRO works directly with pharmaceutical companies and they like to speed up the drug development process and simplify things, which is a huge benefit to large companies that don't have the necessary resources.

Drug trials can take as many as 10 years to complete, and sometimes more depending on things being overlooked. Costs continue to increase, regulations become stricter and without a reliable group of professionals, procedures can take much longer.

CROs Defined

As independent organizations, CROs take over once the sponsor gets to a point in their process where they feel a new drug or treatment shows potential. They help in the development process by employing the right experts to test on both animals and humans as directed, and follow careful regulations to assess the new drug properly in their provided clinical setting.

They operate worldwide in order to obtain clearer results and readings, and many continue to expand their reaches and employ a wider variety of experts in order to get ahead of the competition. The more variety they offer, the better.

Who Works at a CRO?

Many of the experts employed by a CRO say their role is very rewarding. They feel as though their part however small changes the lives of millions of people. Making a difference is clearly the reason they chose their positions so obtaining a job within a CRO is a dream come true. Further, stress is at a minimum for most depending on the stage of research they are in.

Any individual considering going after a job at a CRO should have a college degree as well as relevant experience in order to be competitive. Experience in a clinical setting will help, and keeping updated on regulations is a bonus as they'll need to do so anyway upon hire. These standards prove that a CRO is an excellent choice for pharma companies when it comes to working through all the trials quickly and accurately. On the job training comes standard as well. All this just proves why these companies are on the rise throughout the world.

Necessary Experience

The CRO to be hired should offer plenty of experience, to include industry and therapeutic expertise, delivery models, regulatory expertise, a global presence and experience with commercialization to name a few.

Setting out to find a cure for the world's most debilitating and deadly diseases is not a small venture. Diabetes, HIV, Alzheimer's, MS and of course Cancer are some of those that come to mind when considering those that are a threat; but of course, there are many, many more. The staff should include experts in oncology, toxicology, immunology and other experts. Having the most talented and experienced minds on staff throughout the entire industry helps them find solutions for their sponsors. Staying on course is of the utmost importance in addition to keeping up with today's pharmaceutical industry to include regulation demands, expired patents and pricing as far as supply and demand.

Regulatory expertise is necessary to ensure the success of new drugs. Any CRO that can navigate the barriers set forth by the FDA and other regulators is a prime choice. They should be backed by integrated and advanced technologies that offer ease of filings, optimized trials and the ability to keep the trial moving forward.

Finally, a global presence means communication along with the right tools and technology will work together seamlessly to bring the product into fruition all over the world, wherever it's needed. If a CRO has all these characteristics, the trials will run smoothly as possible.

FOMAT Medical Research is one of the world's premier medical research companies. It specializes in developing and managing clinical trials in South America as well as providing them with technology to assist their sites with their trials. FOMAT currently has its headquarters in the United States with regional sites in Ecuador and shortly in Peru and Argentina with English-speaking management teams, investigators and clinical coordinators working at all of their locations. The company's international sites count more than 10 million patients many of which have not participated in clinical trials before. For more information on FOMAT Medical Research and the services it provides to the medical


There are times when a doctor is needed, but the ailment doesn't call for an emergency room. If the injury or illness is not life-threatening, seek out an urgent care or walk-in facility. A clinic is perfect for these sorts of events. They have experienced and knowledgeable physicians and staff who can quickly administer aid and treat minor illnesses and injuries with wait times typically less than that of the ER.

Convenient and affordable, walk-in clinics offer treatment for minor illnesses, allergies, asthma, immunology, minor injuries, and other ailments. Many locations also provide complete care for the whole family with specialization in pediatrics. Depending on the facility, they may attend to children six months old. Services include aid for sore throats, ear infections, foreign body removal, and sports injuries.

The mission of most walk-in clinics is to give quality care that is convenient. A bonus of using one of these facilities is patients do not have to endure the hours of waiting at the emergency room. The wait time is often brief, and the lines are not long. If their primary care doctor is booked or on vacation, they do not have to worry-a skilled physician can see patients without an appointment. A walk-in clinic has flexible hours, allowing those with busy schedules and families to get immediate attention on a lunch break or even after dinner. These facilities are there to accommodate people in some of the most inconvenient circumstances-when accidents typically happen.

Not only are many of them open late but they are also available during the weekends. Some are equipped with state-of-the-art laboratories and X-ray facilities. This convenience factor means the doctor does not have to send patients or samples off to a private lab, resulting in lengthy delays for results. In this case, the physician can perform the tests on-site and have the results ready in a matter of minutes. Patients can quickly go home with both a diagnosis and treatment.

Another benefit of using a walk-in clinic is that they are affordable alternatives for less critical injuries. Patients usually find that these facilities are much less expensive than the emergency room as they ordinarily offer lower fees and copays for their services. Not only are they not as costly, but they also accept most insurances, including Medicare and Medicaid. Additionally, many provide coupons and other savings and promotions for preventative care treatments like flu shots and medicine for allergies. These specials also include discounts on physicals, occupational health exams, and travel medications and shots. For those without insurance who are paying out of pocket, a walk-in clinic may provide a lower rate on certain services.

However, these clinics are not for every situation. If the trauma requires major medical attention or if the condition is chronic or severe, visiting an emergency room is crucial. For chronic illnesses, patients should see their primary doctor.


Many of my clients come to me with small cysts in various parts of their body. They could be anywhere, but mostly I get clients with cysts in the breasts, kidneys or in the reproductive organs. Anything growing inside our bodies that we feel should not be there, is of concern and of course our first reaction may be to get it out of there. Often the removal can be also harmful to our health. It is important to be educated and empowered enough to make correct assessments of what we want to do without being swayed by fear.

A cyst is a pouch or sac with a membrane around it and no real opening. It is usually filled with fluid or some kind of matter and can develop in an organ or in any body cavity. It can also be filled with hardened material.

Some health professionals believe that some cysts can be caused by free radical calcium or an imbalance of minerals in the body. Fibrin can be another cause when it coagulates forming cysts or tumours but realistically there can be many reasons why they form. Of course the basis of ill-health is imbalance and high levels of inflammation so if we want to get to the heart of the problem we need to look at your levels and put you on the right herbs, supplements and diet to eliminate this as much as possible.

Black Walnut has long been an herb used in the natural treatment of cysts, as has chaparral. Other useful foods and herbs are yellow dock (for reproductive areas), sarsaparilla, cayenne, mullein, apple cider vinegar and honey.

Sometimes poultices can be made to break up cysts and small tumours and these can either be applied externally if the cyst can be seen, or internally under the instruction of a trained natural therapist. Internally this is done sometimes by the use of a bollus which is a high concentration of a group of natural herbs (kind of like a pill) and these are taken internally. If you have these high concentrations it makes it difficult for the cysts, which are scavengers, to feed off surrounding areas in your body. This means the toxins and poisons are drawn out whilst releasing many healing herbs into the one area. It's like flooding the system with good stuff to break the cysts down.

Detoxes and cleanses are also important in terms of ridding the body of mucus, Candida, polyps etc and these also can be administered by a trained natural therapist. It is also important to remember to keep up the level of antioxidants, vitamins - specifically C and to take natural supplements to adjust any deficiencies in the body.

An old remedy used by our grandmothers is that of Castor Oil taken when needed. It will make you go to the toilet and expel toxins and mucus from the gut however too much of it will have unfavourable side effects so you need to watch how you take it. Again moderation is the key.

Handled properly it is possible that cysts will disperse into the blood stream or when you go to the bathroom down the toilet. Remember also that your skin is one of the largest organs and releases toxins through its pores.

Often a reaction to cysts or tumours is to have them removed. Whilst this does have the solution of removing the cyst it does not look at the possible causes whether they are physical, emotional or energetic. Admittedly there are deficiencies in the body if the cyst has physically manifested but it is necessary to keep in mind that many of our illnesses have emotional and energetic causes which need to be cleared up otherwise the illness recurs. Some believe that such illnesses as tumours and cancers could possibly be the result of suppression and resentment and if these things are not looked at they believe that the illness will, and often does, recur.

It is therefore important to work with a natural therapist who can help you on all levels to get to some of the 'causes' of your cysts and eliminate them. Things like inflammation, diet, supplements and deficiencies need to be looked at as well as emotional suppressions and resentments that have built up surrounding organs in the area where the damage has been caused.

Jenetta Haim runs Stressfree Management (R) at Greystanes in Sydney, Australia. Jenetta specializes in assisting your health and lifestyle in all areas by developing programs on either a corporate or personal level to suit your needs. Contact Jenetta now for her to assist you with your personal or corporate needs. Email info@stressfreemanagement.com.au. For more information check out the website at

According to a study completed by Community Transportation Association, some 3.6 million people in the United States miss a doctor's appointment or put off going to the doctor simply because they do not have any way to get there. Of that 3.6 million, 950,000 are children. Most of these individuals are low-income and lack a working vehicle. While larger areas have affordable public transportation, not everyone lives in these areas. However, for those with low-income, non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) options are available.

Because low-income patients fall through the gaps, the NEMT benefits fill those gaps. In some cases, ambulances are utilized to help patients get to where they need, especially if they are coming from a nursing home. However, subsidies in certain areas allow patients to take taxis, vans, or car services to get to their appointments.

Spending a Little to Save a Lot

Studies indicate that by providing non-emergency medical transportation for routine appointments, Medicaid and Medicare can actually save money. Of course, there is an investment necessary for the system to work. Despite the increased cost, it has been shown that the investment is returned. These studies show that providing this service saves an average of $367 per person.

Routine non-emergency medical transportation is approximately fifteen times cheaper than if that same patient took an ambulance to the emergency room for treatment. On average, the NEMT services only account for 10 percent of the total Medicaid patient base. The expenses total only one percent of the department's expenditures.

Additional studies conducted by Florida State University determined that even if just one percent of all funded NEMT trips ended with the person going to a doctor's office instead of the emergency room, the state would see a return of 1108 percent. This is approximately a return of $11.08 for each dollar spent by state agencies.

Keeping In Line With the Affordable Care Act

Providing non-emergency medical transportation is key to staying in line with the Affordable Care Act. The ACA requires that Medicaid coverage is available for all low-income American citizens. It is an important part of the US having an effective and efficient health care system.

In recent changes to Medicaid, the Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services made providing consistent access to medicinal treatments a mandatory benefit. This change is an effort to provide effective management for the escalating costs associated with hospital costs. It is also an important aspect to ensure general health care gets to those who need it most.

It is important to offer non-emergency medical transportation to those who need it most to keep American citizens healthy. Thanks to new laws and regulations, the NEMT benefits serve as the lifeblood of Medicaid. Additionally, it reduces the financial burden of the state and federal government by avoiding ambulance transportation and emergency room visits that could have been avoided if there had been an alternate means of transport.


It takes time and careful training for a stylist to get the title of Master Barber. These ladies and gentleman know a lot about personal grooming beyond cutting and styling your mane. Many shops offer several services outside of cuts. Take a look at some of their other, less utilized services.

Hot Lather Shave

Before the invention of the personal razor, almost all shaves were given with a straight razor. If you've never had a 'proper shave,' it is something every man must experience. It begins with a hot towel treatment; your stylist will rub cream or oil onto your skin and then cover your face with a hot towel to open up your pores. Hand-whipped shaving cream is applied next. Then, your stylist will use a sharp straight razor to shave your facial hair. The sharpness of the blade is extremely important; a dull blade will pull at your skin, leaving stray strands.

Beard Trim

If you have a special event or an important meeting coming up, you might consider getting a professional beard trim. Many people choose to do regular facial hair maintenance at home, but there is nothing like having a professional touch every once in a while. Your stylist will bring a fresh eye to your grooming, and he or she might even suggest tips on particular styles or products that you can incorporate into your routine.

Coloring for Hair and Beard

Spotted a few gray ones in your hair or beard? Many people rush to the pharmacy for dye kits, which are hard to match to your own color and have mixed results. Instead of risking a two-toned mane, head to your local barber. The stylists there have professional experience in dyeing. They can carefully blend the dye color and your natural shade for a more even and organic look. Your results will be much better than with a drug store dye job.

Facials

A facial might sound like something that only girls get, but the benefits of this beauty treatment will work for anyone. Facials can greatly improve the complexion, texture, and softness of your skin. Facials can also reduce the appearance of acne, scars, and other blemishes. Receiving a facial might just give you the boost of confidence you need.

Combo Packages

Ask your stylist if he or she offers any combination service packages. Many shops will offer discounts to customers who opt for several services at the same time. It's a great way to save a little bit of money the next time you need a trim and a shave.

Be sure to ask your barber about one of these underutilized services. He or she is sure to be happy to work their barber magic for you.


Have you ever swallowed and had food "go down the wrong way"? For an estimated 15-40% of adults over the age of 60 this is a constant concern. Dysphagia is simply defined as any difficulty or inability to swallow. It is not a disease, but a disruption of a normal process. Problems at any point during the swallow can result in difficulty swallowing. A person with dysphagia may have a delayed, incomplete or absent swallowing response. Potential causes include obstruction, nerve and muscle problems and miscellaneous issues such as trauma, medications, poor dentition and poor mouth care. Dysphagia can have a dramatic impact on an older person's nutritional status including development of malnutrition, unintended weight loss, dehydration, and other nutrition deficits.

Warning Signs of Dysphagia

Dysphagia sometimes goes undetected because the signs and symptoms may be confused with other problems or conditions. Warning signs include:

· Coughing, gagging, choking, weak cough, frequent throat clearing or hoarse voice

· Poor control of head, mouth or tongue

· Difficulty chewing, moving food around or pocketing food in the mouth

· Delayed or absent swallow reflex

· Complaints of food sticking in the throat

If signs of swallowing problems are identified, referral should be made to the appropriate health care professional(s) to screen for dysphagia and assess for problems with dentition, pocketing of food in the mouth, pooling of liquids, suspected aspiration, risk of unintended weight loss and malnutrition. The EAT-10: A Swallowing Screening Tool may be used for screening, and a bedside swallow evaluation may be completed to determine need for further testing.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Tests may include a fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation procedure (FEES test) or video fluoroscopic swallowing study. Diagnosis of the type of dysphagia depends on the origin of the problem:

· Oral Dysphagia: Difficulty initiating a swallow due to difficulty chewing, manipulating food in the mouth or propelling food to the back of the throat.

· Pharyngeal Dysphagia: The food bolus penetrates the larynx due to a delayed swallow reflex, incomplete closure of the larynx or residues remaining in the pharynx after the swallow.

· Esophageal Dysphagia: Food does not move easily through the esophagus due to esophageal dysmotility, structural blockage, stenosis or strictures due to gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Once the type of dysphagia is diagnosed, treatment goals include: promoting a safe swallow to reduce risk of choking and/or aspiration of food and fluid into the lungs; maintaining good nutritional status and adequate hydration; facilitating independent eating and swallowing; enhancing the enjoyment of eating and quality of life.

The interdisciplinary team and the patient work together to determine the most appropriate strategies for each individual. Traditional treatment strategies include: swallowing exercises and techniques to improve ability to gather food particles together, thermal stimulation, changes in food/fluid temperature, good oral care to reduce aspiration pneumonia, alterations in food texture and/or fluid consistencies, alternating sips of liquid with food, proper positioning to ease swallowing, close monitoring and intervention during meals and snacks, and/or adaptive equipment such as modified cups or straws.

Controversies in Dysphagia Management

Puree or mechanical soft food or thickened liquids are often recommended to treat dysphagia and prevent aspiration pneumonia. The thought is that cohesive foods tend to be easier to control in the mouth and easier to swallow, and thickening liquids slows the time it takes for the fluid to move through the mouth and esophagus and allows better control of the swallow. However, many experts now believe that evidence does not support diet modification for reducing aspiration pneumonia. Several studies demonstrate that positioning and/or modification of dietary consistency or texture does not reduce aspiration events in persons with dysphagia. As a result, the standard of care for dysphagia management may be changing, especially for management of older adults in skilled nursing facilities.

Swallowing abnormalities are common in older adults but do not necessarily require modified diet and fluid textures, especially if these restrictions adversely affect food and fluid intake. Some individuals with dysphagia may request regular food and/or liquids because they don't like the diet that is ordered. In nursing homes, all decisions on texture and consistency-modified diets should defer to the person (and/or family) after medical advice on the risks and benefits have been provided. If the individual and/or the family refuse recommended treatment, the facility should document that they have educated the individual and/or family, and request an adjustment of the physician's orders and care plan to honor informed choice.

Developing a Care Plan for Dysphagia Management

Even though the standard of nutrition care for dysphagia is changing, and new recommendations may be released in the future as new evidence is made available, texture modifications, fluid consistency alterations, and proper positioning continue to be the standard of care for dysphagia treatment in many healthcare settings.

The interdisciplinary team, including the RDN and SLP should work together to individualize the care plan for each patient. The RDN should complete a thorough nutrition assessment that includes medical factors affecting food/fluid intake, nutrition-focused physical assessment with emphasis on condition of the teeth and oral cavity, nutritional needs, weight history, evaluation of lab tests, risk of malnutrition, dehydration and unintended weight loss, food habits/preferences, ability/willingness to adhere to consistency modifications. A physician's order should reflect the results of the evaluations and specify food texture and fluid consistency needed. In nursing facilities, quality of life and an individual's right to make choices about their care are important considerations, and all decisions regarding diet orders for dysphagia should default to the individual. Their right to refuse recommended treatment should also be respected.

Once treatment has been implemented, regular monitoring and evaluation should include assessing weight over time to identify unintended weight loss, monitoring hydration status, evaluating food/fluid intake, assuring proper feeding assistance and positioning, assuring foods provided are of the appropriate consistency, and monitoring for signs and symptoms of swallowing problems. If intake of foods and fluids is very poor and/or nutritional status is highly compromised, enteral feeding should be considered if consistent with the goals of care.

Older adults with dysphagia can still enjoy mealtime with the right interventions and treatment - and quality of life and enjoyment of food should continue to be the focus.

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