The Functions Of The Musculoskeletal System

Like the name suggests, the musculoskeletal system is the combined organ system which incorporates both the muscular system and the skeletal system of a human being. This is what enables movement in the body.

One of the very complex and large organ systems in our body is the musculoskeletal system. This system refers to the muscular system and the skeletal system, both interconnected with each other physically and in performance.

Obviously, the muscular system is the entire network of muscles, tendons and cartilages that are intertwined, interconnected with each other and to the bones of the body. There are different types of muscles that are found in the body; for example, the smooth muscles and the skeletal muscles. Both of these muscles are a part of the musculoskeletal system. The function of the smooth muscles is involuntary whereas the skeletal muscles are moved and contracted at will.

The thousands of nerves that reach into the muscles enable it to contract. When these contracts, they create a pull on the tendons which thereby move the different bones in our body, thus creating movement. The nerves also send messages from the somatic nervous system to the different muscles. The ligaments are a kind of tissue that connects one bone to the other. It is a fibrous and elastic tissue, which has the ability to stretch to give the allowance for bone joints to move back and forth or in a circular motion.

You must have heard of the cartilage as well. It is something that is not entirely bone or muscle. It is a gel-like connective tissue, which is found in three different types. One of these is what makes up our outer year and another kind is present between two bone ends to prevent them from rubbing with each other as in the knees and elbows.

The skeletal system is what makes the other half of the musculoskeletal system. There are almost 206 bones altogether in an adult human's body. Some of these are short, some long, some flat and some irregular. But together, all these bones give our body structure, provide movement in the body and support to the muscles.

Without a framework of bones, our body could not stand up, sit down or perform any of the chores like it does. But besides this, it also protects many of the vital organs like heart, lungs and brain. The bones are also our mineral storage area; both calcium and phosphorus is stored in them. The red marrow present in some of them are responsible for replacing old blood cells with new ones, while the yellow marrow stores the excess fat,which is used for energy when the body has remained without food for a long time.

Radiology is that line of medical specialty which focuses on studying, diagnosing and treating ailments inside the human body through the use of imaging. Because technology has met rapid evolvement, there are a number of different techniques that radiologists now apply to get useful images of the inside of the human body.
Radiology is a valuable branch of medical science which lets the radiologists/doctors to better assess what ailment is troubling the patient. It lets the medical experts have a look inside the patient's body without having to cut it open first. Through visualizing the insides of the body onto a computer screen or an x-ray sheet, the radiologist will know for certain what kind of sickness is affecting which organ precisely.

There is a whole bunch of imaging technologies that a certified radiologist can use to his advantage. When radiology was first introduced a long time ago, there were only x-rays and even that made a breakthrough in the medical science at the time; but for 50 years, doctors only utilized plain radiography or a chemically developed image on dark film which was enabled when a beam of x-rays are passed through a particular area of the patient. This kind of projection radiography is still in use even now, as it is more cost effective and more widely available. Moreover, this kind of imagery is more suited for the study of the skeleton, heart and bones.

As the branch of radiology expanded, so did the means of catching images from within the body. After the normal x-rays which were captured onto a film, computer topography was introduced; this meant that now the images could be transformed digitally and transferred to a computer. So the radiologist could not directly see the images onto the computer screen.

A more advanced form of diagnostic x-ray imagery is Fluoroscopy which incorporates the use of radio contrast agents, image intensifier tube and a fluorescent screen. It is also used for angiography. The image intensifier tube is attached to the computer system through a closed circuit. The radio-contrast agents have the ability to absorb x-rays and to scatter them; therefore these agents are either injected into the patient or given orally so that they reach the insides of the body. Once the x-rays are shot, a clear real-time image is returned to the television because of the radio-contrast agents. Radiologists use this method when they want to study the blood flow in the veins and arteries or when they want to have a look at the GI tract or genitourinary system.

Other useful forms of radiological methods include the CT scan which also utilizes the x-rays, but the machine rotates around the patient to give a cross-sectional image usually used to study the brain. More advance forms include MRI and ultra sound.

The two organs needed the most in the human body to keep it alive technically are the heart and the lungs. This is because together these two make it possible to regulate good and bad blood throughout the body. Though these two work in conjunction, they have been divided into two different organ systems of the body - the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system - to better comprehend the workings of both these systems.

The cardiovascular system, which involves the heart and the blood vessels, supplies the oxygenated blood to every part of the body while taking the deoxygenated blood away from them. However the cardiovascular system could not have functioned properly without the other most important system.

The respiratory system is made up of the mouth, nose and throat - all the air passage ways - also including the pharynx, larynx and the trachea and then the lungs. The whole design and purpose of this system is the exchange of beneficial and harmful gases within the body so the harmful ones, like carbon dioxide, can be expired out of the body's system and the oxygen is used to oxygenate the blood.
To understand this system further, it has been divided into two main parts, the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract.

The upper respiratory tract is made up of the mouth, nose, pharynx and larynx. To put it briefly the mouth and the nose are busy inhaling the air, making it warm and filtering it of most dirt particles. The pharynx is the place where this passage is divided into the windpipe, known as the trachea, and the food pipe. A flap of cartilage is placed over the trachea which acts as a lid to prevent food particles from entering there. The larynx or the voice box is also placed here to protect any of the solids or liquids from entering the windpipe.

From there the air moves on to the lower respiratory tract. The trachea is another marvel of the whole respiratory system. It is a 10-16 cm long windpipe, which has tiny hairs on the inside to prevent dust particles from polluting the lungs. It also has C-shaped cartilage rings on the complete front side to keep it open. The cartilage does not go all the way round to allow for expansion from behind and because the esophagus is positioned right behind it.

The air finally enters the lungs through the branched trachea pipes called the Bronchi which further divide into bronchioles; these are very narrow and finally lead to the alveoli sacs. Almost 3 million of these can be found in a single lung. It is actually across the thin walls of these sacs that the exchange of gases occurs. Lastly, we have the diaphragm which is a thick muscular band that is placed under both lungs so as to moves upwards and downwards with the rhythm.
Neurology is a branch of medical science that deals with the nervous system disorders. Specifically, this study deals well with diagnosis and treatment of the diseases that involve the peripheral, central, and autonomic nervous systems.

Neurologists, the physicians specialized in this science, are well trained in investigating, diagnosing, and treating neurological disorders. There are a lot of them when you search for them on the Internet. This means that there are also lots of people today who seek their help to correct these kinds of disorders. There are lots of neurological disorders experienced by some people today. Among these disorders are Alzheimer's, Aphasia, Bell's Palsy, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and many more. These are just some of the diseases treated by neurologists.

Neurologists play a very significant role in the lives of the people who experience such disorders. A very common neurological disorder now is schizophrenia. We will examine this disorder closely so we may be able to understand neurology fully.. You can say that someone is suffering from schizophrenia if he experiences auditory hallucinations, like he can hear voices speaking to him. Another thing is the delusion where one experiences false beliefs. These are the common symptoms of people with schizophrenia, those having psychotic symptoms. Symptoms that are highly disruptive includes disturbance in the processing of information and impaired cognition. Though this is the less dramatic of symptoms, it can really cause trouble. Yes, it is true that having this kind of disorder could be a hassle and very tiring. Aside from this, people suffering from this may have lower rates of independent living, marriage, and employment when you compare it with other individuals who are not schizophrenic. The best thing a family member can do with the person suffering from it is to bring him or her to a neurologist so that he can be examined thoroughly.

When tests and examinations are done, the neurologist may be able to diagnose the symptoms and will eventually carry out medical treatment. The patient will be given doses of medicines to help him calm down and focus. Proper treatment and therapy is very beneficial. With continued treatment, the patient will somehow recover from this disorder, allowing him to live a normal and better life. If one of your family members is suffering from schizophrenia, you have to understand him patiently. Though the patient, at some point, may not treat you nicely, you still need to understand. Dealing with this disorder is not that simple. This is the primary importance of neurology, helping us communicate with mentally ill patients and help them become better.

The major components of the cardiovascular system include the heart and the complete structure of blood vessels. These blood vessels include veins and arteries, which together make up the intricate network throughout the body.

The human body has been gifted with many important organs and fluids which help the body function flawlessly. The impeccable designing of the human body can be understood from the fact that we keep ourselves busy throughout the day by multi-tasking chores and not once is our attention diverted towards whatever is going on in our body.

It is impossible to grasp the complete functioning of one of the organs or systems of the body in a short article. However, an attempt will be made here to shed some light on the importance of the cardiovascular system.

The cardiovascular system is one of the most important and prominent systems of the body upon which the functioning of all other parts of the body is dependent. The system mainly comprises of the heart at the very center and the arteries and veins that assist it in supplying blood to and from different body parts.

To state it simply in a sentence - the heart pumps the good blood out through the arteries from where onwards it is distributed to all parts of the body and then it is the network of veins which pick up the bad blood and bring it back to the heart again to be cleaned up.

But the workings of the cardiovascular system are nowhere near simplistic. The heart itself is not a single entity; in fact, it has two complete separate pumps (on the right and left side of the heart) undertaking two completely different tasks. It is important to understand that the blood present in either of the parts never gets mixed with the blood from the other side. And this is the reason that a network of both arteries and veins is provided to it.

The arteries take the oxygenated blood from the left side of the body and deliver the nutrients and other components to all parts of the body. When the artery leaves the heart, it is quite thick, but as it branches out, it becomes narrower. Therefore, to reach all parts of the body, it first transforms into arterioles and finally into capillaries. Similarly the capillaries join together to make veins and then larger veins and these are responsible for taking the deoxygenated blood back to the right side of the heart.

The heart pumps this bad blood to the lungs to be oxygenated once again from where it is brought back to the left side of the heart. Once the oxygenated blood reaches back to the starting point, the cycle of the cardiovascular system begins once again.

Specifically speaking, the field of medicine known as oncology is related to the diagnostic treatment of cancer. The word is a Greek word derivative which means "bulk" or a "mass" which thereby refers to a cancerous or a tumorous mass.
The field of applied medical sciences has greatly advanced both in relation to technological aid and the depth of knowledge and inquiry over the past half century.

In fact, since the discovery of the first anti-biotic, man has been racing to reach the finish line where he would have achieved the task of either finding the prevention or cure of every fatal disease. But sadly enough, all that research and experimentation has still not brought man towards the end of the race and cancer still remains the biggest threat to the life and health of the average man.

Oncology is that field of medical science that is dedicated only towards specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of this horrific disease, wherever it may occur in the body and thus it also makes it very vast and widespread. The oncologists therefore focus their specialization on one sub-specialty such as the diagnosis and treatment of bone cancer, lung cancer, throat cancer etc.; while others focus their energy on the different kinds of treatment given to patients suffering from cancer such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgical removals of tumors and so on.

Much to the encouragement of mankind, oncology has another branch which is just as wide as studying the different kinds of cancer that may hit a person's body; this branch is related to discovering the causes, prevention and cures for the disease. Many oncology researchers dedicate their lives in finding the cure to this horrific problem. And thankfully, after years of research and scientific study, doctors are now generally hopeful that though there is no prevention, an early detection can save many lives. For example, with the help of test it is possible to detect prostate cancer at a very early stage and it has been able to save many men's lives. The same can be said of breast and cervical cancer.

With research nowhere near its end and because oncology has many sub-specialties many medical practitioners still find a lot of scope in this field and therefore choose to specialize in either of the sub-categories such as,

• Radiation oncology,
• Medical Oncology,
• Surgical oncology,
• Gynecologic oncology,
• Pediatric oncology and
• Interventional oncology.

In some countries, like in the UK, the oncologists are divided into two categories - the clinical and the medical oncologist. The only difference between them is that the medical oncologist cannot perform radiotherapy, the other one can. But this difference is nonexistent in the West and the two terms mean the same thing. However the cancer patient is not only dealt by the oncologist, but many other specialists belonging to other disciplines.

WTF? If you're like me, you woke up to a surprise of immense proportion: one side of your face wasn't working! "Holy crap" you said and hopefully you were in the doctor's office immediately if not the emergency room. Why? First and foremost you want to make sure you're not having a stroke but let's just move beyond all that BS and get to the Bells Palsy diagnosis. Yep, that's what it is we think, we're not sure what causes it and you should be better in 3 months to two years. Yikes.

I'm three and a half months in at this writing and I've seen only small incremental improvements in terms of returning nerve functionality. No matter what anybody says it's probably a six month sentence, minimum. That said, I wish I had it to do over again--I would have approached things differently knowing what I know now. It's all about inflammation you see and the current medical protocol speaks to that but in the most conservative way. The doctor will prescribe a steroid like Prednisone and an anti-viral medication, probably Aclyovair (don't freak out, yes, it's a herpes virus medication). However, there is so much more you can do to attack the inflammation or... you could just lay back and accept the six month (plus) sentence of having a screwed up face: drooping lip, eye that won't close or produce tears, a forehead that looks like you've botoxed half of it and if you're case is a bit more severe: a loss of taste buds and a pain behind your ear. Lovely, huh?

Anyway, get your meds from the doctor and also INSIST on a B12 shot immediately and plan on getting one each week until you're well... one of the most important things you can do for the nerve inflammation. Google it and don't miss a single week. As a side note, if there is one of those storefront Any Lab Test Now places in your town, you can walk in without an appointment and get a B12 or BLipo Complex for $25 and $35 respectively. I recommend the latter. Don't try and substitute an oral B12 methyl tablet as you're just NOT going to raise your levels quick enough to fight the inflammation and nerve support.

Also, get your butt to a chiropractor immediately and tell them what's up and get an adjustment with special emphasis on your neck. Google it-it helps relieve pressure on the swollen nerves that are causing your problem. DO IT.

From the chiropractor, go immediately to an acupuncturist! I know, I didn't believe in that BS either but the alternative is being conservative and accepting the six month sentence. Remember, this is all about an aggressive attack on the nerve inflammation and acupuncture has shown to lessen inflammation. By the way, the Chinese have their own philosophy related to Bells Palsy--something about wind in the channel and being related to the pancreas or some darn thing! My acupunturist also does Cold Laser Therapy (Google it) on my face. Don't ask me, but what have I got to lose? Unlike me, if you can get to it early you have a chance of mitigating the swollen nerve sheath and getting the nerve to function again within a few weeks. If not, the nerve gets destroyed and you are relegated to a much more protracted period waiting for the nerve to re-generate and that can take months... trust me--I'm living it!

What else can you do? All of the above routinely AND supplements! Make sure you're taking plenty of vitamin D--at least 3-4000mg a day: it won't hurt you and will only help. Most importantly, load up on Curcumin-Tumeric: a natural anti-inflammatory.

Bottom line: Be aggressive as hell in terms of an early attack on the nerve inflammation and maybe, just maybe you can recover in a matter of weeks, realistically 3-4. Otherwise, you're in for a long haul. Yes, it can be depressing. You'll be far more focused on how you look than others really care about but that doesn't make it any easier. If you're like me you're vanity will be challenged like never before! Yes, it can even be depressing at times but keep your chin up--nobody likes a whiner! The good news is that it really doesn't affect any other activities. I continue to exercise like a madman and I remain positive that I'm closer to the end than the beginning.

Bells Palsy usually affects people between 15 and 45. I'm 59, so I take my affliction as a compliment! A few more health facts about me if you're curious. No family history of anything of consequence. I have low cholesterol and a blood pressure of 115/75. As I said, I exercise 6 days a week including cycling, running and weights. I maintain a reasonably healthy diet and have been a regular supplement-taker for years: multi-vitamin, D, B, Ubiquinol and regular morning protein shakes. In the for-what-it's-with category, I am 6'1" tall and weigh 180 pounds and heretofore the picture of health! Shit happens and I would encourage you to get over it, not worry about the randomness of Bells Palsy and spend your time aggressively fighting the nerve inflammation--it could severely shorten your recovery time!

Last and what is really amazing is the six degrees of separation I've experienced with Bells Palsy even though I had never heard of it until I woke up with it that morning in mid-March 2015. You'll likely experience the same thing. People you know, know somebody or they've had it themselves. Lots of celebrities have had it including George Clooney and it seems that he turned out OK! I've also run into random people that had it at the same time as me, including a nurse at the doctor's office that walked into the room to take vitals and her lip was drooping and her eye looked funny and I said, "are you making fun of me?" and we both had a big laugh! As a side note, she had taken 6 months to heal and about the time she got over it the doctor's office required her and the other nurses to get a flu shot which is normal procedure for health care practitioners and the flu shot brought her Bells Palsy back with a vengeance and when I met her she was 12 months into her second episode! Suffice it to say I won't be getting a flu shot this year--I'll take my chances.

By getting or gifting the following essential tests, you might actually do him a big favor concerning his healthy future. For it is now known that early detection and diagnosis means a far brighter chance of full recovery from debilitating illnesses in old age

1. Blood Pressure check: Blood pressure is a silent killer flowing through his arteries and it generally develops after the age of 40. If undetected and controlled it can fail his kidneys or get him a heart attack. A BP check will tell you whether he is hypertensive and that his heart is working overtime (score of 140/90 or more)

2. Cholesterol Test: As men get older, their arteries become narrower and harder and have more heart attacks than women. Your doctor will be able to find out the ratio of LDL (bad cholesterol) to HDL (good cholesterol) and triglycerides (dangerous fats) in his blood. A score of 3 or above means his cardiovascular system is at risk.

3. Diabetes Test: Asian men are at higher risk of type 2 diabetes because their body metabolism is similar to obese people. Approx 30 million males in India are at risk with this epidemic and your father could be in this list. Left untreated, diabetes can put him to health risks like blindness, stroke, kidney failure, and heart attack. Bear in mind that he may be showing no symptoms at all but this test is a must.

4. Colonoscopy: Colon cancer, despite its high incidence in India, is the most treatable form of cancer if detected early. If your father is regular smoker or drinker, he may be at risk with colorectal cancer (CRC) which is the third most common cancer worldwide. Poor diet during work and travel, lifestyle habits combined with some hereditary factors might be putting him at risk. A colonoscopy test has a 90% chances of cure in first stage as compared to 30% in terminal stage (stage 4)

5. Prostate check: You father may dismiss it as an old man's illness but remind him that if screened early his chances of living to be a healthy old man increases dramatically. All men have a 1 in 8 chance of overall lifetime risk with prostate. This test is usually combined with rectal check and is recommended around the age of 40 with a frequency of 1 per year.

There are other vital checks that have not made it to the list for the simple reason of incidence and likely risk on health but are important too. They include eye check (for glaucoma), waist check (for obesity), mental health check (for depression, sleeplessness etc). So get him to your family doctor today and gift him a healthy future and celebrate Father's Day.

The medical science has been subdivided into many categories and divisions which separately deal with the various organ systems. For example Neuropsychology is the sub-specialty study of medicine which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders pertaining to psychological and nervous systems.

The human body is full of complex networking of nerves, muscles, organs and bones. The function of one is linked and affected by the function of one or more other systems in the body. For example the pancreas' ability or disability to enable the absorption of glucose from the blood into the different cells is directly going to affect the functionality of the kidneys. It is the task of the kidneys to filter the waste (including excessive glucose) from the blood and flush it out of the body.

This is the reason why all medical specialists have to undergo medical basic training in MED school before they start their residency in the field of their specialization. Neuropsychology is one such sub-specialty field of clinical psychology. This study deals with how the brain works and its relation to the subsequent behavior. A neuropsychologist is also an expert on analyzing the role played by the nervous system in carrying out those tasks. Any disorder resulting in the brain is directly going to affect the quality and the type of signals that are sent out from the brain through the nerves thereby affecting the gross motor skills of that person.

So a medical practitioner who specializes in Neuropsychology is like a psychologist who not only diagnoses and deals with a person's disturbed thought, but one who analyzes and treats its medical effects on the nerves and the resulting motor skills in the entire body. A neuropsychologist is trained enough to treat disorders of the cognitive skills, behavioral problems and psychological problems.

For the purpose of properly diagnosing and thereby treating the disorders, a neuropsychologist will generally require a neuropsychological evaluation of the patient. This evaluation will be based on a series of tests which could take from a few hours to a whole day. The aim of this evaluation is to assess any psychological impairment which affects the cognitive behavior of the patient. Based on this evaluation, the neuropsychologist will devise a treatment plan. The neuropsychological evaluation does not involve tests like MRI, EEG or CT scan as these are primarily focused on the nervous system alone.

So how is it assessed that a person requires the help of a neuropsychologist and not a psychologist or a neurologist for that matter? It is true, that it is quite difficult to understand the difference between the need for neuropsychologist and a plain clinical psychologist; undoubtedly it is also the factor of cost effectiveness, most people aren't properly aware of the capabilities of a neuropsychologist.

A clinical psychologist has not had enough training to understand why and how the altered brain's reasoning is affecting the functionality of the rest of the body. This is where the science of Neuropsychology and the role of neuropsychologist steps in.

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