6 Facts About High Heat, Death and Injury

Heat waves kill. The 1995 Chicago heat wave killed almost 700 people and sent over 3,300 to the emergency room. The CDC Environmental Hazards and Health Effects Program gives us these 6 facts about how heat kills.

It's not just the heat. Humidity plays a large role in heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Humans cool themselves by perspiring so that the air dries the moisture and, thus, cools us down. In high humidity, perspiration can't do its job. When desert dwellers say, "it's a dry heat", they're telling you why their high temperatures might be more bearable than a lower temperature in a humid climate.

Nighttime counts, too. We have a rhythm to our lives. We wake up; we sleep. And, there is a rhythm to our days and nights. At night, the sun goes down and the temperatures cool. When nighttime temperatures stay high, we don't get that cooling during a heat wave, there is an increase in deaths.

What happens when we overheat? Think of your car's temperature gauge. If your car gets overheated and you continue to drive, you've got a real problem. The same is true of your body. The first signs of heat exhaustion may be cramps and heat rash. The skin may become red and dry. If something isn't done to cool the person, it may become heat stroke. Perspiration shuts down and body temperature increases rapidly. Mental confusion, vomiting, fainting and seizures are all signs of heat stroke. Medical attention should be sought immediately and efforts to cool the person by putting cool cloths on them, moving them to the shade, and removing any unnecessary clothing should start right away.

There may be lasting health problems after heat stroke. In the Chicago heat wave, 58 patients were admitted to ICU for heat stroke. One year later, 33% of those hospitalized still showed moderate to severe functional problems.

Who is most vulnerable? The elderly are the most vulnerable. If they do not have proper cooling in their homes, they are at risk in any heat wave. In modern society, the elderly are often more isolated - living on their own instead of with family members.

Have we evolved to cope with heat? The human body may not have found its own solution, but the CDC notes that society has. Thanks to Willis Carrier, society has air conditioning. CDC says access to air conditioning is the "number-one factor that ameliorates death from heat".
You may live in a climate where your air conditioner runs 24/7 in the summer months or you may live somewhere where you only use it occasionally. Keep it in good shape - it could become more than a convenience and turn into a life-saving device. Have yearly air conditioning maintenance by an air conditioning contractor - they're your expert. If suspect a problem, call for air conditioning repair. It will help keep you cool and may save you a larger bill later. Most importantly, if you have A/C and know of someone who doesn't and your area is experiencing a high heat emergency, invite them over and cool them off!

Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the country. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, it causes more serious long-term disabilities than any other disease.

There are new treatments that greatly reduce the damage caused by stroke but that treatment needs to be administered - fast. The window of opportunity to start treating stroke patients is three hours. But a person needs to be at the hospital within 60 minutes of having stroke to be evaluated and receive treatment. The sooner the patient arrives at the hospital, the better chance they have at preventing disability. That is why it's important for people of all ages to know stroke warning signs and what to do in case of this emergency.

A stroke is often referred to as a "brain attack". It occurs when blood flow to the brain is stopped - due to a blockage by a clot. The brain cells in the immediate area begin to die because they stop getting the oxygen and nutrients they need to function.

There are two kinds of stroke. The most common kind of stroke, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind of stroke, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain.

The most common symptoms are:

- Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech

- Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body

- Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes

- Sudden severe headache with no known cause

- Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination

Remember, the person suffering a stroke may not realize it's happening to them or they may not be able to tell you that they need help.

So it's important that you recognize the symptoms and know to call 911 - immediately.

While majority of stroke victims are over the age of 65, a quarter of patients are younger. For African Americans, stroke is more common and more deadly, even in young and middle-aged adults. And while family history does play a role in your risk, there are many risk factors you can control.

- If you have high blood pressure, work with your doctor to get it under control. Many people do not realize they have high blood pressure, which usually produces no symptoms but is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Managing your high blood pressure is the most important thing you can do to avoid stroke.

- If you smoke, quit.

- If you have diabetes, learn how to manage it. As with high blood pressure, diabetes usually causes no symptoms but it increases the chance of stroke.

- If you are overweight, start maintaining a healthy diet and exercising regularly.

Talk to your doctor about your personal risk factors for having a stroke. Remember to check with him or her before taking any treatment or medical remedy.

Body heat, also known as heat stress, is a common health problem these days and is especially exaggerated during the summer. The body is unable to cool itself, leading to several health issues like damage to the internal organs, heat cramps, rashes, pimples, dizziness and nausea.

Working outside in the hot weather especially in the tropics, exposure to the hot sun while exercising or working in places where the workspace are cramped and not airy, may increase your risk of heat stress. Maintaining body heat is quite important.

How to avoid Body heat?

Hydrate - It is very important to stay hydrated. Water flushes out toxins from the body and provides a cooling effect. Melons and cucumber are effective in preventing body heat. Being rich in water, they keep you hydrated and cool.

Avoid Spicy/Fried food - Stay away from hot, spicy food and avoid fatty and fried foods. This includes junk and fast foods too.

Stay away from caffeine/alcohol - Drastically reducing your caffeine & alcohol intake will go a long way in helping your body keep cool.

Reduce sodium intake - Follow a low sodium diet regime and replace your almond, sesame & corn oil with Coconut or Olive herbal oil instead

Change your diet - Nuts are known to cause a rapid increase in body temperature, so try decreasing your nut intake. Following a largely vegetarian food chart and reducing your red meat intake won't hurt either.
Remedies for Body heat.

If however you already suffer from increased body heat, here are a few tips that will help you out.

Soaking your feet in a basin of cool water helps reduce excessive heat from the body

Drink a glass of fresh pomegranate juice mixed with a few drops of almond oil, every morning.

Another easy home remedy to relieve body heat, is to eat a spoonful of fenugreek seeds every morning.

Eat a handful of poppy seeds before you to go to sleep to get good rest and to maintain normal body temperature during the night. (Warning: Poppy seeds contains opiates and should not be consumed in large quantities or given to children)

Applying a fine paste of sandalwood and cold milk to the forehead and chest cools the skin and body instantly.

A tablespoon of honey in cold milk on a daily basis also helps.
Body heat may not be life threatening, but it's implications on your health could be dire. So don't ignore the symptoms, a slight alteration in your diet and lifestyle can make all the difference.

Regular physical check-ups are required for drivers who drive commercial vehicles. The Department of Transportation has made these physicals compulsory to ensure safety standards on the roads. This medical certificate must be carried with you at all times when you are driving.

Who Needs a DOT Physical?

You are required to have a DOT certification with you whenever you drive if any of the following apply to you:

• You are commercially driving a vehicle that can hold 15 passengers or more and are driving for more than 75 miles from the place where you work
• You are carrying some kind of hazardous substances in your vehicle
• You are operating a vehicle that has a weight or a weight rating of more than 10,001 pounds and this vehicle is used for interstate purposes

Restrictions by DOT

The Department of Transportation has laid down certain restrictions for drivers of commercial vehicles. If you fall under any of these categories, you will not be allowed to have a commercial license. For example, you must have at least 20/40 vision (you are allowed to wear glasses or contact lenses in order to improve your eyesight). If you have diabetes and need injectable insulin, it falls under one of the restrictions specified by the DOT. Those who are found to use any narcotics or drugs that are habit-forming may also not be allowed to renew their licenses.

Exam Procedure

The first thing you need to do is fill out the top section of the DOT physical form. This section will ask you for a lot of personal details which should be filled in correctly. Once you complete this, you can move on to the next section which is about your medical history. Here, you should specify if you have suffered or are suffering from any problem like loss of hearing, bad eyesight, a heart attack, dizziness, strokes, missing limbs, kidney disease, chronic pain, etc. Remember that every question must be answered truthfully because if you lie on your form and you are caught later, you can face a lot of legal problems.

Once you finish filling in your form, the last part will need to be completed by a medical examiner. In order to do this, the examiner will conduct a regular physical exam which will include a visual test, checking of your blood pressure and pulse, a neurological examination, examination of your throat, ears, mouth and any other test that they may feel necessary. If you pass this examination and you have no major physical problem, you will obtain the necessary medical certificate.

DOT Physicals can now be done in comfortable settings and at your convenience. Visit a certified physician in order to get your examination completed so that you can drive your commercial vehicle without any problem.

Getting the perfect Bikini Body is premised on two major factors. A great diet and two the perfect exercise routine. In as much as there are a lot of Bikini Body programs out there, a close observation of them, will reveal that they all share a core of essentials. I will be discussing these; Preparation, diet, exercise, toning up; staying motivated and how they are meshed together into one program in this article today.


The first thing that you need to do is set goals. That is to decide what you want to achieve before you start the program. What do you want to improve? Do you want to lose weight or simply just have a more toned slender look? Do you want certain parts of your body to look slimmer? Do you want to gain muscle? If you want to lose weight, how much weight do you want to lose? These and other like questions will guide you to choose the appropriate diet and exercise most suitable for your goals.

Secondly, you will need to record your weight and take measurements of your body parts. For example, your waist, your arms etc. This will aid you in tracking whatever progress you might make. Here is a good time to remember that if one of your aims is to add more muscle to your physique then you might eventually weigh more than your original weight because muscles naturally weigh more than fat. In that case you should pay more attention to the measurements rather than the number on the scale.

Thirdly, it is imperative that you take a before picture. This stands as another way to monitor your progress, but more importantly will assist in keeping you motivated. And finally you will derive a great sense of joy at the end of the program when you take your after picture and compare the two to note the massive improvement that you have made or just to realise that you were able to achieve your goals.

What comes first, the chicken or the egg? In the preparation and execution timeline of Bikini Workouts this next has often been controverted. Do you buy the Bikini before you start to take the measurements and make your decision on what your program goals are, or do you only buy it (if you don't already have one)after you have started.

Well whatever the case, I think that it is safe to say that this can come as either the third or as it is placed here fourth stage. Acquiring and placing the bikini you want to wear in a conspicuous place where you will see it every day will serve as a great boost to motivating you to persist in the program. This will help you constantly remember why you started and give you the push to keep going in those times when you want to quit.


Next we shall be considering the almighty diet. Diet is so important because as the saying goes, "we are what we eat". On that score, while you will need to avoid some foods, you will have to stock up on others. So what should be eaten? Fruits and vegetables. Lots and lots of it. Leafy green non-starchy vegetables. Spinach and the like is highly recommended, whilst fruit can be limited to a few pieces per day.

When it comes to proteins low fat, lean proteins like fish, turkey and chicken is the way to go. Tempeh, veggie burgers and tofu will equally surfeit if you are a vegetarian.

Again you will need to cut down on your sugar consumption. You should be mindful of possible hidden sugars in sauces, breads and dressings. Has such you should make the reading of food labels a part of your shopping and cooking regimen.

You should also ensure to always stay hydrated. This means you should drink plenty of water a day. 8 glasses has been recommended.

Lastly stay teetotal or if you must drink select wine over alternatives like carb heavy beers or sugary cocktails.

When the Summer season swings round, you know its time to rummage in the wardrobe for or go out to buy that new bikini. You also know that you might have to shed a few pounds and perk up here and there in order to well fit it. Thankfully, there is a handful of workouts and guides out there touting the perfect method to bikini shape you in the shortest space of time. But they cant all be right can they? Having studied a dozen of them with my better half who was looking to get into Bikini shape, post the better part of a year of living it up; and she having spectacularly achieved it, I can definitely say that I have come away with some key insights into how it is and can be most efficiently done. For more info and

The shoulder is the body's most movable joint. This is good and bad news. With this level of function comes the potential for some instability - and certainly pain. Doctors will tell you that there are a number of conditions and injuries that can affect the shoulder.

Common causes of shoulder pain include:
• Arthritis affecting your shoulder joint
• Broken or dislocated bone in your shoulder
• Bursitis
• Shoulder separation
• Torn rotator cuff
• Frozen shoulder
• Overuse injuries affecting your shoulder and nearby tissues

Chronic shoulder pain robs you of your quality of life. It doesn't have to be that way, of course. Here are 5 ways you can take control of your chronic shoulder pain.

1. Avoid Activities. To a point. Depending on what is causing you pain, certain activities and movements could only make the symptoms worse. However, healthcare providers suggest that you should continue using your shoulder for some mild activities because keeping it still could also make your symptoms worse.

Doctors advise you to keep the shoulder mobile with light tasks if possible yet avoid heavy lifting and contact sports for 8 to 12 weeks. You may also be given a sling to wear in order to support the arm for up to a week after the initial injury.

2. Ice packs. If you injure your shoulder while playing a sport you can apply an ice pack to the affected area to reduce pain and inflammation. Applying ice packs mean 10 to 20 minutes. It's a good idea to wrap the ice pace in a towel to avoid it directly touching your skin and causing ice burn.

3. Painkillers. If the pain is mild, taking painkillers may be enough to control it. Medical professionals say it is important to follow the dosage instructions on the packet to ensure the medicine is suitable and that you do not take too much.

4. Corticosteroid tablets. These medicines are a type of hormone, which have a wide range of effect on the body, including reducing pain and swelling.

5. Corticosteroid injections. Doctors might suggest this approach when the shoulder pain is very severe and when oral painkillers are just not enough to control the pain. These injections in and around the shoulder joint may help relieve the pain and increase your range of movement for several weeks at a time. Doctors say that the injections cannot cure the condition completely, and symptoms could return. Some experts believe that the injection helps reduce pain and allows you to do your physiotherapy and rehabilitation more effectively.

Remember that some shoulder conditions such as a torn rotator cuff or severe cases of bursitis, may require surgery. When all else fails, surgery will certainly put you back on the road to recovery from chronic shoulder pain.

Live long enough and chances are you'll suffer from some form of Osteoarthritis (OA), which is when degenerative joint pain is caused by wear and tear on your joints. As we age, the cartilage that cushions joints begins to wear down. This causes the bones to rub together and leads to inflammation of the joints. That equals pain.

OA affects the joints in the arms and legs most, but can also include fingers, wrists, knees, ankles and hips. The lower back is also a common culprit of OA pain and discomfort.

What are the early warning signs of OA? Here are 5 of them.

1. General aches and pains. The pain of early arthritis can be classified in pain and tenderness. There might also be a sharper pain when moving your affected joint in a certain way, such as when opening a jar with arthritic fingers. The discomfort you feel when pressing down on the joint is tenderness. It can include visible swelling in the area of the joint.

2. Joint Stiffness. Following right behind joint stiffness is joint pain. Stiffness is normal doctors say, when you first wake up and step out of bed or have been sitting at your desk for hours at a time. It's also a sign of early OA. Feeling sluggish and having that "wooden" feeling is another. People with arthritis often start to feel better once they have warmed up their joints through some gentle exercise or even just going about their daily chores.

3. Those who feel abnormal sensations also fall into this category. Cartilage is meant to be a shock absorber that helps joints move smoothly. Once that cartilage wears down, the bones rub against bones and that's where the abnormal sensations arise. You might also feel - or hear - your joints clicking or cracking when you move.

4. Flexibility loss. If you are in the early stages of arthritis you may notice that moving the affected areas is not as easy anymore. Joint stiffness and pain has a lot to do with loss of flexibility. This is also called a loss of range of motion. The extent to which you can move your joints in their normal patterns are how you explain you range of motion. Bending or extending your knee is the range of motion. Arthritis sufferers might not be able to bend their knee as far.
5. If timing becomes an issue, it might be OA. Pain, tenderness and joint stiffness tend to be limited to very specific times, at least in the early stages. For instance, after sitting at a sporting event, your hip might hurt. Or the back is stiff the next day. As arthritis progresses, you might have achy joints even when you're at rest.

What can you do about it? Healthcare providers advise exercise, reducing the strain on your joints, watching your weight, physical therapy, and medication.

Each year over 250,000 people in the U.S. alone undergo shoulder surgery. Those who do so include individuals with acute shoulder pain or injury that has severely diminished their everyday functionality without having to contend with some kind of nagging pain. Healthcare providers say shoulder surgery can make a big difference in your ability to retrieve that function, and return to work and play.

Patients are often worried because the shoulder is the most complex and unstable joint in the body and can get injured easily. Many surgeries have been developed to repair the muscles, connective tissue, or damaged joints that can arise from traumatic or overuse injuries to the shoulder.

If shoulder surgery is what you have to do, then check out these 5 questions you should ask before having shoulder surgery.

1. How long will I be out?
The actual surgery takes one to two hours, depending on what needs to be done. Patients typically spend a night or two in the hospital for pain control. Most arthroscopic shoulder surgery patients recover quickly. New minimally invasive arthroscopic techniques and improved instrumentation have allowed doctors to quicken the recovery process. Most surgeries are performed on an outpatient basis. The amount of time you will need to recover depends on the procedure and on your preoperative physical conditioning.

2. What About Rehabilitation?
Rehabilitation begins 1 to 4 days following surgery. The first session is to change your operative dressing and to come up with a plan for your treatment. Surgeons often encourage their patients to move their shoulders immediately after surgery. They say you will be able to move your arm in some directions under your own strength. Remember that surgeons had to cut through certain muscles and re-attach them at surgery. They do not want you to use those muscles until they have healed. Following a specific rehabilitation program with a physical therapist usually means a two to three month rehabilitation, depending on the patient.

3. Does it Matter What Medications I'm taking? It does. It is important that your healthcare provider know what medications you are taking. Your list should include the name of the medication, the dosage of the medication, how many times you take the medication, and at what time you take the medication.

4, Should I Alert My Primary Doctor?
Yes. You may need an EKG to check the condition of your heart, schedule lab work and maybe have an X-ray.

5. What If I Don't Make it to My Doctor?
Then the surgery will be postponed. Preoperative clearance is vital to go forward with the surgery. In fact, if you fail your clearance test from your primary doctor, the operation will not be scheduled until you do.

Remember to check with your doctor before taking any treatment or medical remedy.

If you've been diagnosed with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder, or TMJ, chances are you are experiencing pain in the head, face or jaw. You did not a medical professional to tell you that TMJ is a chronic and rather painful condition that affects millions of people or that the pain can be caused by a variety of medical problems. Problems in the facial area can cause head and neck pain, ear pain, headaches, and a jaw that is locked in position or difficult to open.

So now that you've been diagnosed, what do you do now?

You can take some matters in your own hands by trying a few things, such as:

Moist Heat. A heat pack or hot water bottle wrapped in a warm moist towel is said to relieve some pain.

On the other hand, ice packs are good, too. They usually decrease inflammation and numb pain and promote healing. Medical professionals warn not to place the ice pack directly on the ski and keep the pack wrapped in a clean cloth while using it.

A diet of soft foods will work better. This gives the jaw a chance to rest. Doctors say it is important not to stretch your mouth to accommodate chewy foods, especially things like corn on the cob and apples.

Jaw exercises are also good, doctors say. The exercises must be slow and gentle. A health care provider or a physical therapist can evaluate your condition and offer the right exercises.

When some of these home treatments are not all that effective, medical treatment options might be necessary. Some TMJ patients have found success with dental splint, which is a dental appliances placed in the mouth that keeps the teeth in alignment and prevents tooth grinding. (This is usually prescribed because it must be fitted.)

Other treatments:
Physical therapy with jaw exercises can strengthen muscles, improve flexibility, and add a range of motion. In some severe cases, you can talk with your doctor about surgery on the jaw or dental surgery, if that is necessary. Prescription-strength pain medicines, muscle relaxers, anti-inflammatory medications or steroids may also be necessary in some cases. Ask your doctor if you fit this category.

One of the first things medical personnel suggest is to educate yourself. They say that patients who know what to expect are better able to converse with health care providers, ask pertinent questions, and make an overall knowledgeable decision, especially if the suggestion is surgery of some kind.

Osteoporosis is a chronic disease characterised by a loss of bone mineral density, with the ultimate effect of reducing the structural integrity of the bone. Once the structural integrity of the bone is reduced, the risk of fractures increases. To combat this, the recommendation is to increase the dietary calcium intake to such a rate that an amount sufficient for bone building is consumed. On the surface this is entirely plausible; however, myriad sources of epidemiologic and trial data seem to support the notion that high calcium intake does not result in increased bone mineral density (BMD) or reduction in incidences of osteoporosis.

A general thread in conversations on the internet is that the source of the calcium may be the problem - that is, dairy is not a great source of calcium for human bones. There is certainly some evidence to support this assertion, but it should be noted that epidemiologic data can only be used to show correlation, which is not the same as causation. It is noteworthy to acknowledge at this stage that the data presented reflects the questions asked; the wrong question gets the wrong answer.

The general pattern observed in some epidemiologic research is that increased intakes of calcium from dairy sources is linked to increased levels of osteoporosis. The trend is clear, but that doesn't mean that one causes the other, such is the problem with correlations. Any number of other lifestyle factors could be presented that might result in a similar, such as ingestion of foods that interfere with calcium metabolism or levels of daily activity. The latter, in particular, presents as an interesting area to consider.

The notion that simply ingesting calcium can lead to increased or retained bone mineral density is a chronic oversimplification of how bones are built. Whilst the basic premise of the argument is correct, bones are built with calcium, it ignores the fact that there needs to be a stimulus for bone development to occur. In the absence of this, the capacity of calcium to build bones is greatly reduced.

In the simplest of terms, bones are adaptive. They respond to stressors by flexing, undergoing torsion or by compressing. When a sufficient amount of flexion, torsion or compression is applied to bone, there is an adaptive response. Too much, and the bone breaks. Flexion, torsion and compression of bones can be thought of in the broadest sense as being the result of lifestyle factors. For instance, if you carry a heavy load on your back all your life, the resultant load will, in the presence of an adequate diet, result in an increase in BMD.

When considering the calcium-BMD hypothesis in relation to lifestyle factors, it's clear that countries with high calcium intakes also tend to have the lowest levels of lifestyle loading. The consequence of this is that the stimulus for bone remodeling is removed, or at the very minimum greatly diminished. That's not to say that there isn't a link between the source of calcium, the amount consumed and the extent of osteoporosis; it's simply to point out that there is more to the story than just the intake side of things. To suggest that intake of calcium is sufficient to build strong bones is to completely misrepresent the process of bone remodeling and how this influences BMD over the time course of life.

Peaks rates of BMD are typically observed in adults under the age of 30. For females the peak may actually occur slightly earlier, but the difference would be minor. Rates of BMD accretion accelerate in the teenage years, with a clear link between activity and density - the more that a skeleton is loaded as a child/adolescent, the greater the density. In the absence of any form of adequate stimulus, bone remodeling simply doesn't occur at high enough rates to create dense bones. In affluent countries, our couch-surfing progeny are being served the ideal conditions for weak bones, irrespective of any nutritional intervention.

To stimulate bone remodeling and to create the conditions for high BMD, there needs to be axial and appendicular loading, ideally applied in a multi-planar fashion. The spine, part of the axial skeleton, benefits greatly from loads placed directly on top, such as back squats or loaded carries, while the appendicular skeleton, including the arms and legs, benefits from things like squats, skipping, swinging and punching. In simple terms, the best way to build solid bones is to invest time from childhood onwards jumping, skipping, lifting, carrying and hitting.

As life progresses, the stimulus for bone remodeling needs to be maintained. Bones are dynamic structures, and as such, a once-off stimulus has a short-term benefit. In the absence of stressors, BMD commences its decline, which only accelerates with age. For women, this becomes particularly precipitous post-menopause, where up to 6% of BMD can be lost in the first few years and up to 20% is lost within 20 years. For men, the rate of decline is lower, but it still occurs. The critical factor in the rate of decline is the presence of an ongoing stimulus - continued loading will reduce the rate, in women, or prevent the loss, in men, of BMD.

Maintaining BMD throughout life requires an ongoing investment that is greater than just reaching for milk, no matter how hard the relevant dairy boards across the globe may try to shout out that message. Ongoing physical activity is critical. Bone remodeling simply does not occur in the absence of stimulus, no matter how hard people might wish that it could. And even when a nutritional intervention offers some mitigation of loss of BMD, it can't increase it.

So, if we are looking for reasons to invest in physical activity throughout our lives, avoiding osteoporosis is a pretty compelling one. And while looking for sources of calcium, stepping away from the dairy cabinet and moving towards the dark-leafy green vegetables, figs, and nuts and seeds is a good start. Not only do plant-based options offer a great source of calcium, possibly the best sources of calcium, but they bring with them a range of vitamins and minerals that help to build a healthy human. Simply put - a plant-based diet combined with regular, externally-loaded training, that focuses on loading the axial and appendicular skeletal systems, is a recipe for healthy, strong bones, for all of our lives.

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