4 Common Misconceptions About Clinical Research

In any mechanical entity, whether it's a bicycle or a biplane, the components most likely to fail are those subject to continuous wear and tear. It is the parts that endure the stress of motion, often located where two parts intersect. In the human body, it's no different. While skin and bone can break from acute impact, the hinges of the human body where bones connect are at risk of little more than normal function and time. As a result, joint replacement is one of the more common types of prosthetic surgeries available in the United States.

Surgeons have been working to replace missing or ailing body parts for millennia. Egyptian mummies have been found with wooden toes, fingers, and limbs attached with leather straps. Joint replacement, or arthroplasty as it is known in the surgical community, was experimented with but not successful until the 19th Century. In 1822, Dr. Anthony White, working out of Liverpool in the United Kingdom, was responsible for the first excision operation that removed the leg portion of a patient's hip socket. While this preserved mobility, it left the connecting tissue perilously unstable. The first artificial implants and replacements were experimented with only a generation after Dr. White, but septic complications and infection rendered the vast majority of these operations unsuccessful. It wasn't until 1890 that Dr. Themistocles Gluck completed the first successful joint replacement when he implanted the first artificial knee. In 1891, Dr. Gluck successfully performed a hip replacement. In both cases, the implants were made of ivory and fixed to the bone with nickel plates and screws.

A seminal figure in surgery, largely responsible for the modernization of both the materials and methods used today, is Sir John Charnley. Charnley was an army surgeon during the Second World War, where he served in Cairo. His experiences during the war spurred his interest in prosthetics to improve the mobility and well-being of recovering soldiers. In the early 1960s, Charnley was given control of the surgical center at Wrightington Hospital in Lancashire. One of his major breakthroughs was to disprove the prevailing belief at the time that friction, which greatly inhibited the long-term viability of joint replacement, could only be reduced by fluids lubricating the interface of bones. Charnley showed that it was actually the friction coefficient of the bones themselves that reduced wear. With this knowledge, he sought out an ideal material, eventually settling on High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene, an early form of plastic. This advancement not only allowed for longer-lasting implants, but it also enabled them to be manufactured mechanically at a lower cost. Charnley was knighted in 1977 for his contributions to medicine.

Today, hip replacement surgery is one of the most commonly performed medical procedures in first-world countries. Joint replacement procedures allow millions of people around the globe to continue mobility into old age. Without the pioneering efforts of men like John Charnley, these advancements would not be possible.

"Walk-in clinic" is a loosely defined term that can encompass some non-traditional medical care facilities. The common thread, as the name suggests, is the fact that these institutions accept people who come in without an appointment. They can be urgent care facilities that treat immediate medical needs that don't quite warrant a trip to the emergency room. Or, the term can refer to convenient care kiosks or departments housed within pre-existing businesses. An example would be a pharmacy, supermarket, shopping mall, or drug store that also provides health screening, preventive care, vaccinations, and other services. Depending on how you categorize it, community health centers may also fall within the umbrella definition of a walk-in clinic.

No matter how exactly you define it, one thing is clear: the walk-in clinic is changing the way people in the United States receive medical care and the way they interact with the medical profession. In 1995, there were less than 1,000 medical centers in the United States that didn't require an appointment. Twenty years later, in 2015, there were nearly 11,000 such facilities. The rapid growth is mainly spurred by the twin factors of convenience and cost. First, most urgent care and retail facilities are open past five in the afternoon, and many are also open on weekends. For people who work regular nine-to-five jobs Monday through Friday, these hours are a huge advantage.

To see a traditional general practitioner, a patient ordinarily has to schedule an appointment in advance and miss part of their workday to receive care. At a walk-in clinic, a patient has a broader range of hours and can fit their visit around their schedule, rather than rearrange their schedule to accommodate the visit. Further, because many of these medical care centers are co-located with retail locations, patients can tick a few items off their shopping list while they wait. Another convenience is that a person can receive care the same day. With traditional physicians, even regular patients might have to wait weeks before they can get an appointment. For someone suffering from, for example, an ear infection, immediate diagnosis and medicine are necessary to alleviate the pain.

Cost is a more tenuous advantage since both the purpose of the visit and the level and type of insurance coverage can change the calculus. On average, a visit to a primary-care physician runs around $120 while a visit to a retail care center only costs around $75. Urgent care can be slightly more expensive than going to a clinic because they have an attendant MD on hand at all times, and doctors demand higher salaries. A study, however, showed that urgent care is still slightly less expensive when factoring in the cost of prescriptions.

General practitioners contend that you can't put a dollar value on the personal relationship between a doctor and those she treats. This is undoubtedly true, but with the cost of health care continuing to rise, intangibles might have to take a backseat to budgetary restraints.

Hormonal imbalance is a very common problem for millions of people. It can stem from lifestyle and diet, but it can also be genetic. The following are some symptoms to watch for:

Increased Weight Gain

Those who have a hormonal imbalance may find that they gain weight despite their efforts to remain healthy. Insulin resistance is one of the most common causes of this issue, which is a side effect of lacking certain hormones in the body. Certain dietary changes can help with weight gain, including avoiding processed foods, sugar, and wheat products.

More Belly Fat

Belly fat is a problem for many people, but it is particularly problematic for those with a hormonal imbalance. This is due to the stress that the endocrine system is under, which results in the underproduction of certain hormones and overproduction of cortisol. More cortisol leads to the body storing fat for use later, resulting in more belly fat.

Decreased Libido

Another noticeable symptom of this issue is a reduced libido. It typically begins with disturbed sleep patterns, which can cause reduced sex hormone production.


Those suffering from unbalanced hormones can easily become fatigued. Feeling sluggish and foggy is not a normal daily occurrence, so this can be indicative of a problem. Starting a healthy diet and exercising regularly can help reduce the increased exhaustion.


If feelings of depression or anxiety are being experienced, this can be indicative of a hormonal issue. Depression is a clue that the body is overworked, toxic, or stressed, and is not being nourished in the way that it needs in order to properly function. Take any action that is needed to fight depression, including starting therapy, asking the doctor about medication, starting a supplement, or increasing exercise.

Poor Sleep Patterns

Insomnia is the beginning of the stress that affects the body's cortisol levels. This can have a direct impact on hormone levels. Aim to get to bed at a reasonable time each night. Avoid electronics and screens to get the best quality sleep.


Excess sweating, particularly at night, is something that many people have to endure. It is commonly seen in women. While excess sweating is a common component of hormonal imbalance, it can also be a side effect of not caring for the body in general. To combat the sweating, take note of daily feelings, as emotions can often trigger increased internal temperature. Depression can lead to night sweats, as can anxiety and frustration. Try to get those feelings out by journaling before going to bed in order to get a restful night's sleep.

Food Cravings

Adrenal fatigue and insulin resistance can cause food cravings. It can cause a person to eat more than they really need to become full. Maintaining a healthy diet and eating small meals during the day will help control those cravings.

These symptoms, while very common in hormonal imbalance, can also be attributed to other issues. It is important to see a physician to find the root cause of these problems.

Summer is a great season to get a good tan, go to the beach and have your fill of activities. However, it can get really hot sometimes, especially when you're in places like Qatar and the Middle East. Unfortunately, you can't just stay in your air-conditioned room all day like a hermit, right? So don't let the heat put you down. You can still have fun, get fit and keep the summer heat away by using some clever tricks. Check out these tips to keep you cool this summer.

Level up your water
There's nothing like drinking a cold glass of water to quench your thirst. Add some ice, and it's like Antarctica just visited your mouth for a few seconds. Of course, you want the cool feeling to linger, right? But ice cubes melt and even the warmth of your hand can easily temper a cold glass. Here's a neat trick: place mint sprigs on you glass or a pitcher of water. Mint has menthol, a natural chemical, which tricks the brain into perceiving its cold and helps prolong the cold effects of foods, even though in reality the temperature is the same. That's why when you chew gum, which has menthol, it is not cold but gives off a cooling sensation when you chew it. Awesome summer science.

Go light and technical
Despite the heat, you really need to get your fitness fix. But it's hard to stay focused when it seems like you're in a sauna. It could be dangerous too! Since too much sweat could cause slips and other accidents. What's the best way to keep cool while working out, doing sports or doing outdoor activities? One is to choose shoes with breathable materials. Such shoes are typically lightweight and made from porous yet durable materials to provide good airflow as you move. If you're not familiar with such shoes, I suggest you try Reebok shoes. Besides the said features, Reebok shoes, which can be conveniently bought at an online shop, have outsoles with good grip to prevent slips.

On the other hand, when it comes to summer fitness, its best to avoid cotton cloths. Despite its light and soft features, cotton soaks up moisture too well. You can be left soaking in your own sweat and uncomfortable while working out. Choose technical wear with sweat-wicking properties. This features allows the clothes to channel sweat away from your skin, keeping you dry, while letting it evaporate at the clothes' front, effectively cooling you off in the process. Another great thing about technical clothes is their trendy design which makes them suitable as lifestyle wear, as well.

Avoid ice cream... as well as these other foods and drinks
Summer seems so sad without ice cream, but dietitians recommend staying away from ice cream and other sugary foods when it's hot. This is because ice cream, doughnuts, candy bars, sweet breads and similar foods are usually high processed foods. And believe it or not, these foods are dehydrating and their high but simple carbohydrate content can keep your body warm. Don't worry, to curb your summer ice cream cravings just read on...

Reach for that fruit basket
Thirsty? Eat a fruit. Those four words may not make sense to most people, but there are certain fruits which have a high water content that can quench your thirst when you eat them. Watermelons, for instance, have a water per volume content of over 90 percent. So do strawberries (bet you didn't know that). Pineapples, oranges, melons and cucumbers (yes, cucumbers are fruits!) also have high water content. Place them in the refrigerator for 20 minutes or more before eating them for a nice cooling effect. And yes, you can puree fruits and make them into sorbet to curb your ice cream craving.

Finally, keep a positive outlook. Yeah, it's hot (and possibly humid) so no need to pile the

Monotony rules where there is lack of variety and interest. It not only snatches away the flavor of life but devoid us from relishing the sweet giggly moments as well. A tedious routine or any repetitive activity leaves behind nothing but a passive mind and a fettered soul. Being mechanical, we become oblivion to the beauties of nature, and all bestowed blessings. Not only, we neglect the people around but our own precious selves. Novelty and creativity seems to be superseded by robotic servility, what remains behind is not an energetic entity but only a heap of flesh and blood without spirit. Therefore, it is time to break up from uniformity and replenish with a boost of vitality in order to meet the challenges of life.

There are a number of ways to fight it out. I always suggest music of one's own taste as an immediate recourse or a few moments of solitude away from all the hustle and bustle of life. Venture of your choice or some time for your own self is a way to fortify the crumbling strength. Forget about every burden and think only of, whatever or whoever makes you happy. Break or rest is necessary to regain the lost spark and spirit. A well -planned and mutually agreed upon weekend trip always proves to be a great boost for the victim of monotony. Hindrances in such planning are the budget as well as the right destination, which may prove to be a treat for everyone. Such difficulties can be overcome by proper information available on different websites. Distance from the dull and hectic routine and spending some happy moments with the loved ones always remove deadliness.

At times, a few changes in the interior d├ęcor bring a fresh breeze of air to our mind through eyes. It does not mean replacing the whole old lot with the new one but only a few thing will do. Sometimes switching of some articles or furniture can be equally useful, if it has done keeping in view the comfort of family.

Change is the key weapon against monotony. A variety may help to eliminate this evil, which badly affects our efficiency. Feeling of futility pervades in an uneventful and flat continuous work. The same twenty-four hour spans rust the hidden potential. Confining the human potential to limited jobs is unjust. Learning new skills, exploring the world around, settings up realistic goals, pursuing them with refreshing breaks provide us the opportunity to realize our existence. Productivity makes you happy and helps to repower your brain. Brain thrill or learning something new rejuvenates our static selves. Sparing time for the hobby of your taste or for some creative work is never wastage of time. if you are good at any kind of creative work, no matter how mundane is this,never be reluctant to practice which will serve as a tonic for your withering mind. Life is a journey not a race so cool down and move with a moderate pace enjoying the pleasures of life rather than adhering to stiff and hard robotic routine.
Clinical trials present an opportunity for many people to seek alternative treatment options for a range of illnesses and diseases, and are also often undertaken by those who have an interest in contributing to science and medicine by giving their time to clinical research.

There are indeed many benefits to clinical research, including the often improved outcomes of certain people with serious and non-serious medical conditions and a higher standard of care. With that said, there are also several negative myths that persist about these trials that can prevent people for signing up and enjoying many of these very real benefits.

The first myth about clinical research is that it is dangerous to participate in them, as the outcome of any given treatment is not yet adequately known by the researchers administering it. While it is true that the treatments have not yet been approved and long term studies about the risks and benefits of the treatment may not have taken place yet, this is not the whole picture.

In reality, treatment options that are available in trials have undergone extensive testing before they are even administered to humans, and when they are this treatment is only able to be administered if many strict regulations and safeguards are respected. It is extremely rare that something 'goes wrong' with clinical trials, and this is not enough of a reason in some cases to forgo them altogether.

The second major misconception is that by undergoing clinical research for a particular illness you will be forgoing conventional, proven treatment. This is not true, partly due to one of the safeguards mentioned above.

The reality is that new drugs or treatments will not be administered if other treatment options are still viable, and if not undergoing these treatment options will potentially cause a negative outcome of the patient. For this reasons, many of the people who undergo clinical trials have effectively 'run out' of other desirable treatment options.

This is not to say that you can only enjoy the many benefits of trials if you are someone who is suffering from a serious illness that has no other treatment options to try; conversely, there are many trials that aim to provide alternative and complementary therapies and treatments which will potentially work alongside the treatment that you are currently undergoing.

The third myth that persists about clinical research is that once a patient enrols on a program, they cannot back out of it. Alternatively, some people will believe that stopping a research program part way through can actually has negative consequences on their health and condition. This is not necessarily true.

It is absolutely possible to drop out of the trial at any time, and you will be made fully aware in advance about any risks associated with discontinuing treatment during the process. This way you will be able to make an informed decision about stopping the treatment in the first place, and will know any possible risks that you face if you do drop out at any point.

The last myth that exists is that often placebos are used in trials which aim to treat serious conditions. This is a real concern for many people, as they are concerned that they could be missing out on a life saving treatment if they are part of a placebo control group.

However, any potential participants can rest assured that this is not the case. In the instance of serious illnesses, placebos are not used, and instead different treatments are often contrasted. If a patient were to be given a placebo in the case of a serious illness, this would have to be very clearly outlined before the clinical research was to start.

FOMAT Medical Research is one of the world's premier medical research companies. It specializes in developing and managing clinical trials in LaTAm as well as providing them with technology to assist their sites with their trials. FOMAT currently has its headquarters in the United States with regional sites in Ecuador and shortly expand throughout Latin America with English-speaking management teams, investigators and clinical coordinators working at all of their locations. The company's international sites count more than 10 million patients many of which have not participated in clinical trials before. For more information on FOMAT Medical Research and the services it provides to the medical

While going for counselling isn't something to be embarrassed about and is more widely accepted than ever before, it is important that you know that the outcome may not be what you are expecting. In some rare cases, with the help of the counsellor, you may both realise that separating and living apart is better for you, your relationship and you family.

Relationship therapy is not meant to be easy and there are certain things you are going to want to ensure you both do to get the most out of your experience and help you moving forward.

Before you go to your first session, sit down and write down what the goals are that you want to achieve when you go for relationship therapy. What do you want out of your life? What do you expect of your partner? What blocks do you have to get through to reach your goals? Knowing what your goals are gives you something to focus on during therapy and ensure that you can both come to the table to ensure that your therapy sessions are effective and help you in the long run.

Chances are your counsellor will direct you towards making the right choices. They will use a therapy which gets you talking, not to them but to each other to work through your problems. The choices you have to make is your attitude towards relationship therapy and your motivation in the long run, do you want to ensure your relationship works or are you ready to go down the road of separating and moving on with your life?

In order to get the most out of this experience, you must both want it. There is no point even attending sessions if the focus is one sided. If you want to go to counselling and your partner doesn't, then the result is not going to be effective. You also want to check your attitude and ensure that you are both focused on making the necessary changes you need to make to ensure your relationship is a success moving forward.

Be ready to accept to hear things you don't want to hear. Relationship therapy can be a painful experience and you may find yourself hurt, but you need to be prepared to hear things about yourself that you are not ready to hear. Hearing these things and then using that information to change yourself, may be just what is needed to improve your relationship.

Communication is an imperative part of any relationship and if you don't communicate with each other, then you may never know where the problems lie in the relationship and what you both need to work on. You need to approach counselling with an open mind and be accepting of what you are told, you need to be ready to share your feelings with your partner and make them understand the problems you have within the relationship that they must work on, while accepting things you need to focus on.

It is very important that you feel comfortable with your counsellor, you should feel you can open up and speak freely in front of them. The final thing you need to do to get the most of your experience is to learn from the past and use that to improve your future.

London Therapy Foundation (LTF) is a consortium of registered and qualified psychotherapists and counsellors offering a range of mental services from marriage counselling to depression and addiction to anxiety. LTF formed with the highest level of service in mind and their access centre is conveniently located close to the M25. Their website is brimming with information on the mental health professionals and enables patients to access counselling without a long waiting list. LTF is a valuable resource for anyone looking for treatment or suppo

The first thing you will find when it comes to effective couples counselling is a view on relationships and how they can change. When you first met your partner you may have been at school, you were both young and carefree. Over the years you have married and had a family and the reality of daily life has changed you and you have noticed you are growing apart. This isn't uncommon and over time relationships do change, its how you deal with the change and what you do to keep that flame alive and live together that matters.

It is very important at this point to note that couples counselling may not be for everyone and in some instances it may have an opposite outcome to what you were hoping for. There are some couples who find that their relationship cannot go anywhere and that separating and moving on with their lives is the best thing for them and their families. While this may not be the outcome you were hoping for, it is possible that with the help of therapy you identify that it is the best course of action moving forward.

Effective couples counsellors will work with you on changing how you behave with each other. In some instances, how you interact with each other changes and this can lead to problems. Focusing on good interactions and ensuring that you always take the other person into consideration, on both sides, can help you strengthen your relationship and enjoy a fulfilling life in the future.

One of the problems you may find within your relationship, is as things have started to strain between you, you have avoided any emotional contact with each other. Avoiding emotional contact can be a dangerous and slippery slope. With effective couples counselling you will learn how to reduce emotional avoidance and how to deal with issues head on, getting it off your chest and clearing the air quickly and effectively.

A couples counsellor will work with both of you to encourage communication. Effective communication is imperative to a successful and happy relationship. You need to be open and willing to share your thoughts and feelings with your partner, even if you know what you have to say will upset them. Bottling things up is only going to result in a volatile fight later on, something you would rather avoid. Holding onto feelings results in anger, contempt and anger and you rather want to work on communicating your feelings and helping you manage your emotions each and every day.

In addition to this, you will find that with an effective couples counsellor you will learn how to strengthen your relationship. You will be given the building blocks to start making those essential repairs and learning new ways and techniques to deal with issues and come up with solutions. Every relationship requires some form of compromise on both sides, so knowing what you need to do and trusting your partner that they will make an effort is the only way to achieve success and enjoy a long term relationship moving forward.

It is important to remember that while therapy can be very effective, it is not for everyone. It needs to be a commitment from both partners.

London Therapy Foundation (LTF) is a consortium of registered and qualified psychotherapists and counsellors offering a range of mental services from marriage counselling to depression and addiction to anxiety. LTF formed with the highest level of servi

Body contouring is often resorted to by people who have achieved extreme weight loss or who want to lose excess weight permanently. The surgical procedure is used by doctors to remove excess fat from the abdomen, hips and thigh region.

The procedure can also help to sculpt the body so that people are able to improve their figure and regain health and confidence. If you are overweight it can lead to many health complications and body contouring surgery is an effective way to lose the extra fat.

Although this surgical procedure can help lose weight permanently, it is important that patients are also aware of body contouring side effects so that they can make an informed choice of surgery.

5 side effects of body contouring

Bruising and swelling - The most common body contouring side effects are bruising and swelling. As a significant amount of fat is removed from various places in the body it can lead to temporary bruising and swelling. Although it may reduce within a few days, it can continue to be a persistent problem in some cases. The bruising can be itchy and annoying at times.

Risk of infection - As the surgical wounds may not heal properly, it can increase the risk of infection. If the patient suffers from other skin or health problems it can delay the healing process and this can aggravate the condition resulting in infections. Allergic reactions to dressings and antiseptic solutions can also infect the operated area. Post surgical care is of utmost importance to help prevent infections of any type. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infections successfully.

Soreness, scarring and change of sensation - As large quantities of skin and tissue are removed during the body contouring process it can result in temporary soreness. Scarring in certain parts of the body and change of sensation are also common side effects. Although scarring is impossible to prevent in surgery a good surgeon may be able to keep it as inconspicuous as possible.

Seroma or excess fluid - In this condition excess fluid is trapped inside the body and it starts building up in certain parts of the body. The fluid is drained out of the body using tubes and this can cure the side effect easily. Depending on the amount of fluids that are accumulated in various parts of the body the tubes may be placed inside for drainage for at least a week.

Risks related to anesthesia - Some patients may experience nausea after anesthesia. There can also be other risks related to anesthesia.
After the surgery you may experience some amount of pain and discomfort and this is most likely to disappear within a few days. Surgeons prescribe pain relief depending on the different surgical procedures.

It is advisable to follow the post operative care suggested by the surgeon for quick healing. In some rare cases multiple procedures may be required to achieve the desired results.

Serious complications or side effects are often rare in body contouring surgery. However you need to remember that all types of surgery involves side effects and risks.

The healing process is usually slow in this surgery as large parts of the body are operated upon but with adequate care and rest the common side effects can be easily managed.

Gain knowledge about the various side effects of this surgery so that you are able to deal with

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